Bishop, Robin. (May 1992) "Towards a Skilled Australia: National Standards To Provide Aussie Joe and Aussie Joanna with Flexible, Transferable Skills." Paper presented at the International Meeting of the Modular Training Systems Conference, Washington, DC, May 11-12.
17 pages. Document Type: conference paper. The Australian government, employer groups, and the trade union movement acknowledge a critical need to improve work force skills. Focus is on the notion of competencies and measurable learning outcomes. The driving force has been the linking of industry restructuring with occupational classification restructuring (award restructuring). The Australian government, working with employer groups and the trade union movement, has established the National Training Board, which facilitates the progressive introduction of a competency-based approach to vocational training linked to award restructuring. Three other forces are as follows: the Finn Report, which emphasizes that the main purpose of education is economic; closer links with industry and schools that provide articulation of courses so that Australians can follow a path of relevant learning according to their chosen career; and a revised understanding of credentials, with established criteria and recognition of prior learning or current competencies. Postsecondary institutions are not having an easy transition, but many newer universities are developing very comprehensive programs articulating on-the-job experience and in-house training programs with advanced credit into formal courses. Disruptions occur, since the three areas of change at the national level -- industry and award restructuring, development of competencies, and a competency-based education thrust -- do not move at the same rate. (Appendixes include addresses of seven sources of information in Australia and newspaper articles.) Descriptors: Articulation (Education); Competency Based Education; Curriculum Development; Educational Change; Federal Government; Foreign Countries; Futures (of Society); Job Skills; Job Training; Labor Force Development; Postsecondary Education; Secondary Education; Standards; Vocational Education. Identifiers: Australia.
Cohen, R., and A. Gonczi. (1994) "Some Critical Issues in Recognition of Prior Learning." RPL: The Currency of the Future: Policy, Practice and Directions: Conference Papers. Eds. P. Quinn and D. Harman. Broadmeadows, Austral.: Broadmeadows College of TAFE. Recognition and Assessment Centre.
16 pages. This paper looks at some critical issues in RPL. In particular, it examines current developments in RPL; planning, development, and implementation issues; the nature of learning from experience; validity and reliability of assessment of prior learning; and other issues.
Employment and Skills Formation Council. (1990) The Recognition of Vocational Training and Learning. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service. [97 pages]
Hart, N. (1991) "From Acronym to Synonym? RPL and Australian Higher Education in the 90s." Australian Journal of Adult and Community Education 31(3), 177-188.
Many Australian academics need an attitudinal shift in the way they recognise the experiences which students bring to universities. For many academics, the term RPL (recognition of prior learning) is just another acronym; this article argues that RPL needs to become a synonym for academic practice in this area if Australian tertiary institutions are to give due credit for the academic and non academic expertise of increasing numbers of adult students. Current institutional procedures for granting status, and the attitudes driving those procedures, tend to be biased against the adults who acquired their knowledge and skills in ways less orthodox and/or more workaday than typical of those students who enter tertiary studies straight from secondary school. Those attitudes and procedures cost adult students, and the tax paying community in general, money and student places at a time when both are in short supply; for Australian universities to maintain such an approach is to suggest that the Australian label is a pseudonym - the institutions have so locked themselves into their own ways of doing things that they are locking out would be contributors to the clever country.
Haydon, A.P. (July 1995) "Getting Credit in Universities for What You Already Know or Can Do." Equity and Access: Windows of Opportunity in the 90's: Second National Conference on Equity and Access in Tertiary Education. Eds. S. Addison, J. Flannagan, and M. Jones. Hawthorn, Melbourne, and Clayton, Austral: Swinburne University of Technology; La Trobe University; Monash University.
15 pages. This paper looks at credit transfer and recognition of prior learning in universities. It examines changes in policy and attitude, influence of government legislation, and includes two attachments -- "Australian Credit Transfer Agency (ACTA)", by Dr Anthony Haydon, which describes the Credit Transfer Project and outlines a number of pilot schemes, and "Credit Transfer Principles: Guidelines on Recognition of Prior Learning", by the Australian Vice-Chancellors Committee, which outlines credit transfer principles as well as recognition of prior learning guidelines.
Ho, K. (1994) "Recognition of Prior Learning: Developments in Western Australia." RPL: The Currency of the Future: Policy, Practice and Directions: Conference Papers. Eds. P. Quinn and D. Harman. Broadmeadows Austral: Broadmeadows College of TAFE. Recognition and Assessment Centre.
13 pages. After an 18-month-period of piloting and evaluating a variety of RPL processes, Western Australia has embarked on the development of a comprehensive RPL policy framework covering the vocational education and training sector. This paper highlights some of the important issues which emerged from the pilot projects including: the importance of industry context; the need to build bridges between industry and training providers; and cost effectiveness. The paper then presents current policy proposals which are embedded within a quality assurance philosophy. Finally, comments are made on how the change process may be timed to coincide with impending changes to the accreditation and registration systems and the network of TAFE colleges in Western Australia. ISBN 0646224417.
McKenzie, P. (1994) "Credit Transfer and Skill Recognition." ACE News 13(3), 5, 8.
This article looks at credit transfer and skill recognition and the development of the recognition of prior learning (RPL). It examines changes in RPL in Australia, and major issues involved in RPL and credit transfer, such as assessment procedures, the training of assessors, sector cooperation, curriculum design and delivery, and resourcing and costs.
Meere, P. (1992) "The Provision of University Credit for Prior Learning." Current Practices in Credit Transfer and Related Issues: Occasional Papers, 1-21. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.
There has been a clear indication from the Commonwealth that the members of the Unified National System (UNS) of higher education are expected to set up improved systems of credit transfer. The granting of credit in award programs on the basis of prior learning is a complex process with a number of dimensions and a range of factors to be considered. Up till now in most institutions, the provision has been ad hoc and located at program level. Higher education can be made more equitable and effective if credit transfer is based on defined policy and criteria established at institutional level. The establishment of a credit bank is a practical way in which a university can improve its process of credit transfer and credit provision. This paper presents a general plan for setting up a university credit bank.
Misko, Josie. (1994) Flexible Delivery. Will a Client Focus System Mean Better Learning? Leabrook, Austral.: National Centre for Vocational Education Research.
60 pages. Document Type: review literature. This paper outlines and examines the implications of the main points of the national framework for flexible delivery of vocational education in Australia's technical and further education (TAFE) colleges. Endorsed by the National TAFE Chief Executives Committee in 1992, the framework establishes specific plans of action to be achieved by 1995. The rationale for and definition of flexible delivery of vocational education are presented, and its implications for TAFE and public and private providers are considered. Discussed next are potential benefits and drawbacks of the following flexible delivery modes and venues: self-paced learning, resource-based learning, technology-enhanced learning, home-based learning, work-based training, and learning centers. The roles of administrators, teachers, and students in each mode/venue are also examined. Following this are the main features, rationale for, and general concerns associated with flexible entry and exit points and flexible assessment (including provisions for recognizing prior learning). Next, several questions and concerns regarding flexible modes and venues are considered, and guidelines are presented for developing flexible and modularized curricula. Effective individualized instruction is a way of accommodating different learning styles, personalities, physiological constraints, disabilities, motivation levels, and cognitive abilities. Descriptors: Adult Education; Change Strategies; Curriculum Development; Delivery Systems; Educational Benefits; Educational Change; Flexible Progression; Flexible Scheduling; Foreign Countries; Home Study; Independent Study; Individualized Instruction; Nontraditional Education; Position Papers; Postsecondary Education; Prior Learning; Vocational Education; Work Experience Programs. Identifiers: TAFE (Australia). ISBN: 0-86397-103-2.
National Board of Employment, Education, and Training. (1994) Credit Transfer and the Recognition of Prior Learning. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Services.
National Board of Employment, Education, and Training. (1990) The Recognition of Vocational Training and Learning: A Report Commissioned by the Employment and Skills Formation Council. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.
Thomson, Peter. (February 1988) The School of Hard Knocks: A Study on the Assessment of Experiential Learning. Summary Report. Payneham, Austral.: TAFE National Centre for Research and Development.
11 pages. Document Type: research report. Australia's tertiary institutions and licensing authorities that control the right to work in various trades and professions have largely ignored the need for procedures and processes to recognize formally the knowledge that people gain in their life experiences. For this reason, the issue of assessing adult learners' life experiences for the purpose of granting them exemptions from various course work was studied and a model for conducting such assessments was developed. The assessment process uses an assessment panel consisting of people with recognized expertise in the field in question. Persons seeking certification submit portfolios and participate in assessment interviews. After having received the appropriate assessment training, the same panel assesses both portfolio and interview performance. The portfolio assessment involves checking the relevance of the competencies claimed against the outcomes of the courses from which exemption is being sought and classifying the work presented against rating scales. A structured interview and checklist are used in assessing candidates' interview performance. Provisional exemption is granted by the assessment panel, and assessment of performance continues on the job for a specified period (this is done primarily through a log book). After all of stages have been successfully completed, exemption is finally ratified. Descriptors: Adult Education; Credits; Evaluation Criteria; Evaluation Methods; Experiential Learning; Foreign Countries; Interviews; Nonformal Education; Portfolios (Background Materials); Prior Learning; Student Certification; Student Evaluation. Identifiers: Australia. Report No: ISBN-0-86397-060-5.
Thomson, Peter. (1988) The School of Hard Knocks: A Study on the Assessment of Experiential Learning. Payneham, Australia: TAFE National Centre for Research and Development.
92 pages. Document Type: research report. Australia's tertiary institutions and licensing authorities that control the right to work in various trades and professions have largely ignored the need for procedures and processes to recognize formally the knowledge that people gain in their life experiences. For this reason, the issue of assessing adult learners' life experiences for the purpose of granting them exemptions from various course work was studied and a model for conducting such assessments was developed. Persons seeking certification submit portfolios and participate in assessment interviews. A panel of experts in the field in which exemption is being sought assesses candidates' portfolios and conducts a structured interview to assess their performance. The portfolio assessment involves checking the relevance of the competencies claimed against the outcomes of the courses from which exemption is being sought and classifying the work presented against rating scales. Candidates having satisfactory interviews and portfolios are first granted provisional exemption. Final ratification of the exemption is after a provisional period during which candidates undergo on-the-job assessment. (This report includes extracts from the portfolio of a woman seeking exemption from course work in child care, syllabus information about the courses from which she is seeking exemption, and a bibliography.) Descriptors: Adult Education; Credits; Evaluation Criteria; Evaluation Methods; Experiential Learning; Foreign Countries; Interviews; Nonformal Education; Portfolios (Background Materials); Prior Learning; Student Certification; Student Evaluation. Identifiers: Australia.
Toop, Leigh, and Judi Burleigh. (January 1993) Arrangements for the Recognition of Prior Learning in Australia. Canberra: Australian Department of Employment, Education and Training.
152 pages. A product of a Competency-Based
Training Pilot Project, 1992. Document Type: project description. Developed
in response to changes in Australia's vocational education and training
system to help maintain a skilled and adaptable workforce, this report
examines principles and practices regarding arrangements for the recognition
of prior learning (RPL) in Australia. The first section of the report discusses
the context of the report, highlights key principles of RPL, and provides
definitions of key terms. The second section reviews recent developments
in RPL, including the growing international acceptance and the application
of RPL in Australia. This section also describes types of recognition,
including appropriate placement of individuals in courses/programs, certification
of skilled individuals to practice in regulated occupations, and assessment
of employee competencies, and reviews the benefits for individuals, training
providers, employers, immigrants, and the community. Section 3 discusses
issues surrounding the implementation of RPL, including resource-efficient
approaches, attitudinal barriers, costs, and standards for recognition.
The final section describes exemplary practices in Australia for each stage
of RPL, including publicity, initial support and counseling, applications,
assessment, post-assessment guidance, and certification. Extensive appendixes
provide findings from a national study of applications of RPL for vocational
education students, higher education students, certified individuals in
regulated occupations, and employers. A list of report contributors and
49 references are included. Descriptors: Certification; Continuing Education;
Educational Assessment; Educational Experience; Educational Policy; Educational
Practices; Educational Trends; Employment Experience; Foreign Countries;
Learning Experience; Lifelong Learning; Prior Learning; Skilled Occupations;
Special Degree Programs; Trade and Industrial Education; Two Year Colleges;
Vocational Education; Work Experience. Identifiers: Australia.
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