Bibliography


ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY FOR PLAR



Plar Policy
Asia and the Pacific

Qureshi, M. A. (August 1996) "Current Trends and Issues in Technical and Vocational Education in Asia and the Pacific." United Nations International Project on Technical and Vocational Education (UNEVOC) INFO 8, 1-3. [Paris: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization.]

5 pages. Product of the United Nations International Project on Technical and Vocational Education (UNEVOC). Document Type: journal article; review literature. In most countries of the Asia-Pacific region, technical and vocational education and training (TVET) are considered essential to economic development. As a result of growing awareness of the need to adapt TVET to meet the rapidly changing national, regional, and global economic requirements, TVET is in a period of transition and reorientation toward providing students with certain basic skills and knowledge required and supplying them with the tools needed to increase/update their knowledge through lifelong education. Throughout the region, realization of the crucial role of TVET in development of new skills and new economic structures and in regionalization and internationalization is increasing, and new ways of developing and improving the status of TVET are being sought. The following strategies, which were identified through a study of current issues in the countries of the Asia-Pacific region, have been recommended as ways of improving TVET and thereby accelerating technological change: prepare for an information society; align curricula with the needs of business/industry; develop articulation mechanisms; recognize prior learning; develop a system of broad-based work force training; emphasize TVET program quality; and recognize the key role of teachers in providing high quality TVET programs. Descriptors: Economic Development; Educational Change; Educational Improvement; Educational Needs; Educational Objectives; Educational Trends; Education Work Relationship; Foreign Countries; Needs Assessment; Post-secondary Education; Program Development; Program Improvement; School Business Relationship; Secondary Education; Technical Education; Trend Analysis; Vocational Education. Identifiers: Asia Pacific Region.

Valisno, Mona Dumlao. (January 1980) Evaluation and Accreditation of Non-Formal Education in the Philippines. IIEP Occasional Papers No. 53. Paris, France: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization. International Inst. for Educational Planning. 
 

131 pages. Document Type: project description. Described here is the Accreditation and Equivalency Programme (AEP), begun in the Philippines in 1976. Early chapters emphasize that the program was instituted to establish citizens' eligibility to receive academic credit for out-of-school learning and experiences, to encourage dropouts to return to school, and to determine eligibility for employment or job promotion. Chapter 4 describes the development of the Philippine Educational Placement Test, designed to assess and give credit for general knowledge and work experience. Sample items and tests are included. Chapter 5 describes the results of the test, including number of examiners participating, distribution of examinees by age group, performance of examinees, grade year placement of examinees, and reasons for examinees dropping out of school. Chapter 6 briefly describes feedback about the program from examinees and citizens. Chapter 7 contains highlights of findings and their implications, including the need to further expand the AEP and to strengthen the hold of the formal schooling system. In chapter 8, objectives reached by the AEP are discussed, including extent of benefits of the program, effects on the clientele, and effects of the project on other sectors. A final chapter on future plans discusses in detail a proposed evaluation study of the program. Descriptors: Continuation Students; Credits; Dropout Programs; Educational Attainment; Educational Certificates; Elementary Secondary Education; Equivalency Tests; Experiential Learning; Foreign Countries; Grade Equivalent Scores; High School Equivalency Programs; Prior Learning; Promotion (Occupational); Reentry Students; Student Certification; Student Placement; Tables (Data); Work Experience Identifiers: Philippines. A contribution to the IIEP research project on "The Determination of Learning Needs in Rural Areas," directed by Ravindra Dave. Sponsoring Agency: Asia Foundation, New York, N.Y.; United Nations Children's Fund, New York, N.Y.

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