Bibliography


ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY FOR PLAR



Implementation of PLAR in Formal Education
General

Ashbrook, Richard, et al. (October 1995) "Choices and Consequences in the Assessment of Adult Learning Outcomes." In Celebrating Excellence: Learning and Teaching in Adult Higher Education. Proceedings of the 15th National Conference on Alternative and External Degree Programs for Adults. Columbus, Ohio, October 5-7. 

Ashbrook, Richard, et al. (October 1995) "Innovations in the Assessment of Experiential Learning." In Celebrating Excellence: Learning and Teaching in Adult Higher Education. Proceedings of the 15th National Conference on Alternative and External Degree Programs for Adults. Columbus, Ohio, October 5-7.

Baker, Janette. (May 1984) Credit for Prior Learning From a Canadian Perspective. Unpublished paper, York University, Educational Development Office (Toronto, Ont.). [32 pages]

Benchmarking Academic Standards in Higher Education. (No date). The Fourth SACWG National Workshop in association with QAA (Preliminary Papers)

Benton, Nena. (1996) Recognition of Prior Learning: Rules, Roles, and Models. Wellington: New Zealand Council for Educational Research. 

This is the second in a compendium of three books on the recognition of prior learning. It contains a summary of the rules of assessment, examines the mentoring of RPL candidates in some depth, and highlights the role of the facilitator in being aware of all the assessment possibilities.

Benton, Nena. (1995) Recognition of Prior Learning: An Introduction. Wellington: New Zealand Council for Educational Research.

RPL is a process which enables relevant and verifiable knowledge and skills, no matter where or how acquired, to be systematically assessed and formally acknowledged so that they can be used effectively for further training.

Burke, Roberta, and Joy Van Kleef. (Winter 1997) "Prior Learning Assessment in Canada: A Credit to Workforce Development." Career Planning and Adult Development Journal 12(4), 23-28. 

Document Type: position paper; journal article. Describes the implementation of Prior Learning Assessment (PLA) at many educational institutions across Canada. Suggests that PLA should be incorporated into every skills training and upgrading program. Descriptors: Adults; Career Planning; Educational Assessment; Foreign Countries; Labour Force Development; Portfolios (Background Materials); Prior Learning. Identifiers: Canada; Prior Learning Assessment. ISSN: 0736-1920.

Butterworth, Christine, and Michael Bloor. (July 1994) "The Professional Development Model of APEL: Some Problems of Assessment and Validity." In Paul Armstrong, Barry Bright, and Miriam Zukas, eds. Reflecting on Changing Practices, Contexts and Identities: Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Standing Conference on University Teaching and Research in the Education of Adults -- SCUTREA. 24th, Hull, England, United Kingdom, July 12-14. Standing Conference on Univ. Teaching and Research in the Education of Adults, 17-20.

Challis, M. (1993) Introducing Accreditation of Prior Experiential Learning. London: Routledge.

Cowan, John. (1988) "Learning to Facilitate Experiential Learning." Studies in Continuing Education 10(1), 19-29.

The author presents a diagrammatic model of experiential learning and how it can be facilitated. His declared intention is to present an account of ongoing experiences and of the development of his own thinking, as a stimulus for the further development of readers who facilitate experimental learning. Descriptors (major): Cognitive Processes; Experiential Learning; Models (minor): Adults; Continuing Education; Post-secondary Education; Prior Learning; Undergraduate Students.

Croker, D. (1995) "A Quality Code for AP(E)L": Issues for Managers and Practitioners. Proceedings of the SEEC National Conference. Chelmsford, UK: South East England Consortium for Credit Accumulation and Transfer (SEEC).

Dagavarian, Debra A., ed. (June 1994) "Subjectivity in Prior Learning Assessment" Journal of the National Institute on the Assessment of Experiential Learning (Adult Learning, Currency and Subjectivity in PLA).

This paper provides responses to the issue of subjectivity and "checks and balances" that can be built into a prior learning assessment program to ensure objectivity. The first paper contains an 11-item bibliography.

Dagavarian, Debra A., and William M. Walters. (June 1993) "Outcomes Assessment of Prior Learning Assessment Programs." In Support of Prior Learning Assessment and Outcomes Assessment of Prior Learning Assessment Programs: Proceedings of the National Institute on the Assessment of Experiential Learning. Ed. Debra A. Dagavarian. Princeton, New Jersey, June 12-15. Chicago and Trenton, NJ: Council for Adult and Experiential Learning and Thomas A. Edison State College.

Document Type: position paper; conference proceedings. This publication contains two papers from the 1993 National Institute on the Assessment of Experiential Learning. Dagavarian and Walter's paper identifies program objectives useful to all prior learning assessment programs and lists five generic, desired outcomes for each of three constituencies. Desired outcomes for students are as follows: to give them the forum to investigate the structure of college-level learning; to engage them in setting educational objectives; to enable them to gain a new sense of self; to ensure prior learning assessment certifies readiness to move on to further education; and to ensure prior learning assessment expedites attainment of a college degree. Desired outcomes for faculty are as follows: to enhance faculty's typical mode of interaction with a subject area; to broaden faculty's perspective on the subject matter; to encourage cross disciplinary awareness; to heighten faculty's sense of professional self-esteem; and to provide faculty with the opportunity for a qualitatively different type of communication with students. Desired outcomes for the institution are as follows: to enhance institutional image as caring and committed; to demonstrate flexibility and responsiveness to adult students; to create a culture of self-examination; to attract greater numbers and diversity of adult students; and to attract a greater diversity of faculty.

Eklund, Barbara Waters. (June 1992) "Searching for an Identity: The Role of the Prior Learning Assessment Professional." In Articulating Knowledge: How Adults Learn and the Role of the Prior Learning Assessment Professional. Proceedings of the National Institute on the Assessment of Experiential Learning. Ed. Debra A. Dagavarian. Princeton, New Jersey, June 13-16, 1992. Chicago and Trenton, NJ: Council for Adult and Experiential Learning, and Thomas A. Edison State College.

Document Type: position paper; conference proceedings. 21 pages. This publication highlights three topics from the 1992 National Institute on the Assessment of Experiential Learning. This paper summarizes the session by Alan Mandell that raised questions as to the personal and institutional role of the individual in an institution charged with the responsibility of administering prior learning assessment. Descriptors: Adult Education; Adult Learning; Certification; College Credits; Conference Proceedings; Experiential Learning; Learning Theories; Nontraditional Students; Prior Learning; Student Evaluation.

Evans, Norman. (1992) Experiential Learning: Its Assessment and Accreditation. New York: Routledge, Chapman, and Hall.

See abstract under 1.2.1 (PLAR Policy/Europe/United Kingdom).

Evans, Norman. (1987) Assessing Experiential Learning: A Review of Progress and Practice. Layerthorpe, Eng.: Further Education Unit.

Fenwick, Dorothy C. (Spring/Summer 1985) "Traditional Education and Methods of Access: Transcripting Extrainstitutional Education." Innovative Higher Education, 9(2): 99-110.

Document Type: journal article; project description. The evaluation of training and education sponsored by the Armed Forces, business, and industry, as well as prior learning assessment has been standardized. One method of standardizing the transcripting of extrainstitutional education to increase its acceptance in traditional institutions is described. Descriptors: Academic Records; Adult Students; Evaluation Criteria; Evaluation Methods; Experiential Learning; Futures (of Society); Higher Education; Military Personnel; Military Training; Nontraditional Education; Prior Learning; Surveys.

Forrest, Aubrey. (October 1976) "Experiential Learning and the Assessment Problem." American Vocational Journal 51(7), 39-41.

Describes the scope of experiences for which people are seeking credit at the post secondary level and suggests some techniques for dealing with them, noting that when this experiential learning is school-controlled it is sticky -- but becomes more complicated when petitioners submit personal experiences from the past. Descriptors (major): College Credits; Educational Assessment; Learning; Post-secondary Education; Vocational Education; Work Experience (minor): Achievement Rating; Educational Problems; Educational Testing; Lifelong Learning.

Fugate, Mary, and Terrence MacTaggart. (March 1983) "Managing the Assessment Function." New Directions for Experiential Learning (Cost-Effective Assessment of Prior Learning) 19, 27-43. 

Document Type: journal article; project description. Prior learning assessment programs are characterized as having a highly individualized service or a more standardized pattern. Three model programs are described: Webster College in St. Louis, Adelphi University in Garden City, Long Island, and Sinclair Community College in Dayton. Descriptors: Adult Students; College Faculty; Evaluation Methods; Higher Education; Models; Prior Learning; Program Administration; Program Design; Program Development. Identifiers: Adelphi University NY; Sinclair Community College OH; Webster College MO.

Fugate, Mary, and Ruth Chapman. (1992) Prior Learning Assessment: Results of a Nationwide Institutional Survey. Chicago: Council for Adult and Experiential Learning.

The results of a 1991 CAEL survey to document the use and acceptance of various prior learning assessment methodologies in post-secondary institutions throughout the U.S., this publication provides comprehensive information on PLA for a variety of audiences. ISBN: 07872-3351X.

Gorringe, R. (1987) Handbook for the Assessment of Experiential Learning. London, Eng.: Learning from Experience Trust.

Gray, Peter J., ed. (Fall 1989) New Directions for Higher Education: Achieving Assessment Goals Using Evaluation Techniques (Achieving Assessment Goals Using Evaluation Techniques) 67.

Articles include: "Demystifying Assessment: Learning From the Field" (Barbara Gross Davies); "An Organizational Perspective for the Effective Practice of Assessment" (G. Roger Sell); "So, What's the Use?" (Larry A. Braskamp; "Assessment and Academic Judgments in Higher Education" (George M. Dennison, Mary Anne Bunda); "A Role for Assessment in Higher Education Decision Making" (John C. Ory); "Improving Higher Education: The Need for a Broad View of Assessment" (Peter J. Gray and Robert M. Diamond); "Making Assessment Work: A Synthesis and Future Directions" (G. Roger Sell).

Hager, P., A. Gonczi, and J. Athanasou (1994) "General Issues About Assessment of Competence." Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education 19(1), 3-16.

The authors identified a number of worries and objections regarding competency based assessment: only assesses what is trivial or superficial; is inherently unreliable in that it involves inference; is inherently invalid; represents a departure from traditional proven methods of assessment; neglects the importance of knowledge; focuses on outcomes to the neglect of processes; relies on professional judgement, and hence is too subjective; and vainly tries to assess attitudes. This paper discusses each of these worries and objectives and shows that none of them is decisive. While each of them points to an important issue about competency based assessment, the discussion will show that in each case a well designed competency based assessment system can overcome the worry or objection.

Harrison, Lesley. (November 1995) "The Impact of Credit Transfer and Recognition of Prior Learning: Help or Hindrance for Mature-Age Students." Barriers and Boundaries in Adult, Vocational, and Post-Compulsory Education and Training: Goals, Values, Knowledge, Structures, Participation, and Outcomes. 3rd International Conference. Conference Papers Volume 2. Brisbane, Austral.: Centre for Skill Formation Research and Development, Faculty of Education, Griffith University.

The Hub. Newsletter of the Canadian Association for Prior Learning Assessment (CAPLA), Deseronto, Ont. Published since September 1995.

Hull, Rebecca C., ed. (June 1994) "Currency in Prior Learning Assessment." Journal of the National Institute on the Assessment of Experiential Learning (Adult Learning, Currency and Subjectivity in PLA).

An edited discussion that took place in the form of an electronic conference at the 1994 National Institute. The article considers how current a student's knowledge should be in the assessment of prior learning.

Hynes, Maureen.,ed. (April 1999) Prior Learning Assessment and Recognition Centres: Who Needs Them?  A Symposium on Community Models for PLAR (Proceedings) held at George Brown College, Toronto (for further information, contact the School of Labour, George Brown College, PO. Box 1015, Station B, Toronto ON, M5T 2T9, phone 416-4152549).

57 pages.  The main objective of this symposium was to draw upon some concrete suggestions about how to move PLAR forward into the delivery side, and to renew our hopes that we can come up with effective models that actually give people the credit they deserve for the learning they have done outside the education system, and that gives them the recognition they need to move forward in their jobs and in their trainings.

Jackson, Lewis, and Doug MacIsaac. (Summer 1994) "Introduction to a New Approach to Experiential Learning." New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education 62, 17-28.

Document Type: position paper; journal article. A process model for experiential learning (EL) in adult education begins with the characteristics and needs of adult learners and conceptual foundations of EL. It includes methods and techniques for in-class and field-based experiences, building a folio (point-in-time performance assessment), and portfolio construction (assessing transitional change and cumulative learning). Descriptors: Adult Education; Experiential Learning; Learning Theories; Portfolios (Background Materials); Student Characteristics; Student Evaluation. Identifiers: Authentic Assessment; Process Models. ISSN: 0195-2242.

Kasworm, Carol E., and Catherine A. Marienau. (Fall 1997) "Principles for Assessment in Higher Learning." New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education (Assessing Adult Learning in Diverse Settings: Current Issues and Approaches), No. 75.

The authors offer five principles of adult-oriented assessment based on commonly held premises of adult learning, and include examples of good practice in higher education and other sectors.

Kintzer, Frederick C. (1979) "Problems in Awarding and Transferring Experiential Learning Credits." New Directions for Experiential Learning 4, 37-46. 

The problems in granting experiential learning credit and the exchange and use of such credit are discussed. Because of the shift in attention from traditional curricula to nontraditional programming and services, many problems exist for both the institutions and the adult students returning to school. Descriptors (major): Administrative Policy; College Credits; Experiential Learning; Nontraditional Education; Transfer Policy (minor): Articulation (Education); Educational Objectives; Guidelines; Higher Education; Institutional Cooperation.

Knapp, Joan. (1977) Assessing Prior Learning -- A CAEL Handbook. Columbia, MD: Cooperative Assessment of Experiential Learning.

124 pages. Sponsoring Agency: Ford Foundation, New York, N.Y.; Fund for the Improvement of Post-secondary Education (DHEW), Washington, D.C.; Lilly Endowment, Inc., Indianapolis, Ind. Document Type: classroom material. Target Audience: Practitioners. A model for assessing and awarding credit for prior experiential learning is presented; the adult student's experiences are summarized in a portfolio. The model incorporates eight stages: facilitating the construction and assessment of a portfolio, identifying significant prior experiences, expressing the learning outcomes of prior experiences, articulating prior outcomes to educational goals, documenting the learning experience, measuring the extent and level of prior learning outcomes, judging the learning outcomes, and evaluating prior learning outcomes for awarding credits or recognition. At each stage, alternative practical procedures are suggested. Descriptors: Adults; Behavioural Objectives; College Credits; College Students; Credentials; Educational Background; Evaluation Criteria; Evaluation Methods; Experiential Learning; Guidelines; Higher Education; Informal Assessment; Job Skills; Knowledge Level; Models; Portfolios (Background Materials); Post-secondary Education; Prior Learning; Special Degree Programs; Student Evaluation; Work Experience. Identifiers: Performance Based Certification.

Knapp, Joan E., and Paul I. Jacobs. (November 1981) Setting Standards for Assessing Experiential Learning. Columbia, MD: CAEL.

Koenig, Chelene, and Gloria Wolfson. (1994) Prior Learning Assessment in British Columbia: An Orientation for Post-secondary Institutions. Victoria: British Columbia Ministry of Skills, Training and Labour.

62 pages. A joint project of Douglas Coll., New Westminster (British Columbia).; Malaspina Coll., Nanaimo (British Columbia); Open Learning Agency, Burnaby (British Columbia); University Coll. of the Fraser Valley, Abbotsford (British Columbia). Document Type: project description; non-classroom material. Target Audience: Administrators; Policymakers; Teachers; Practitioners. This manual provides an overview of the concepts and issues involved in the assessment of prior learning in the context of the increasing numbers of older, nontraditional students returning to higher education. Section 1 gives background information about prior learning assessment (PLA) and defines PLA as assessment by some valid and reliable means, by a qualified specialist, of what has been learned through non-formal education/training or experience, that is worthy of credit in a course or program offered by the institution providing the credit. Section 2 describes the standards and guidelines for quality assurance of PLA. Various methods of prior learning assessment are featured in Section 3. In Section 4, the focus is on one of the most common methods of PLA -- portfolio assessment. It introduces a discussion of academic and administrative issues and includes a discussion of special issues that pertain to the assessment of portfolios. Section 5 is intended for individuals or institutions who already use prior learning assessment or who will be implementing a PLA process. Section 6 lists the recommended participants in the PLA process. Appendixes list characteristics of adult learners and a sample prior learning assessment policy at one British Columbia institution. Also included are a glossary and a bibliography. Descriptors: College Faculty; College Role; College Students; Evaluation Methods; Experiential Learning; Foreign Countries; Higher Education; Portfolio Assessment; Prior Learning; Program Implementation; Standards; Student Evaluation. Identifiers: British Columbia. ISBN: 1-55139-014-0.

Kray, Eugene J. (1977) Experiential Learning Assessment -- A Sourcebook for Post-secondary Institutions. Volumes II and III. ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED148435.

395 pages. Document Type: classroom material. This source book is intended for post-secondary educators seeking to develop a system that will acknowledge, validate and credit prior learning at their institutions. It provides a systematic, organized approach to the major issues surrounding the implementation of experiential learning assessment. Chapters include: Institutional Philosophy, Faculty, Students, Assessment and Evaluation, Organization and Administration, Institutional Policies and Procedures, Financing, and Other Agencies and Institutions. Each chapter is outlined by questions that provide a framework for describing how other institutions have attempted to respond to major issues, what some of the leading authors in the field have to say about this problem, and the conclusions of the author determined through empirical findings. Numerous institutional program examples, tables and exhibits are included throughout. An annotated Table of Contents assists the reader in locating specific materials for use. Appendices include sample materials from experiential learning programs at Delaware County Community College (Pennsylvania), Lakewood Community College (Minnesota), and Florida International University. Descriptors: Agency Role; College Credits; Community Colleges; Educational Philosophy; Evaluation Methods; Experiential Learning; Financial Support; Learning Experience; Post-secondary Education; Program Administration; Program Descriptions; Student Evaluation; Student Experience; Teacher Role; Two Year Colleges.

Kray, Eugene J. (June 1975) Faculty Attitudes Toward Assessment of Experiential Learning. Ed.D. practicum, Nova University.

58 pages. Document Type: research report. It was hypothesized that there is a significant difference in attitudes toward theories of learning between faculty members who assess experiential learning (EL) for award of college credit and those who do not. A questionnaire eliciting opinion on EL assessment methods and philosophy was distributed to 595 faculty members at 54 two- and four-year institutions. The questionnaire contained five statements from the behaviorist position and five from the cognitive constructionist position. Faculty were asked to respond using a six point modified Likert scale ranging from "strong support" to "strong opposition." Usable responses were received from 114 respondents who were involved in the assessment of EL and 68 who were not. Results indicated that the faculty who assess EL tend to take the cognitive constructionist position, while those who do not tend to take the behaviorist position. A literature review is included and the survey instrument is appended. Descriptors: College Faculty; Doctoral Dissertations; Experiential Learning; Higher Education; Learning Experience; Learning Theories; Post-secondary Education; Practicums; Questionnaires; Student Evaluation; Student Experience; Teacher Attitudes; Teacher Characteristics; Two Year Colleges.

Learning From Experience Trust. (1995) AP(E)L Activities, 1980-1993. Chelmsford, UK: Learning From Experience Trust.

Learning From Experience Trust. (1995) Resource Materials for Assessing Experiential Learning. Chelmsford, UK: Learning From Experience Trust.

Learning From Experience Trust, and County of Avon Education Department. (March 1987) Handbook for the Assessment of Experiential Learning. London, Eng.: Learning From Experience Trust. [35 pages; ISBN 1 870529 014]

Mann, Carolyn M., Brenda Krueger and Barry Heermann, for Sinclair Community College. (1989) Credit for Lifelong Learning. 3rd ed. Bloomington, IN: College Town Press.

Mayo-Wells, B., and R.W. Campbell. (June 1984) "Questions for Administrators of Experiential Learning Programs." In James W. Fonseca, Comp. Non-Traditional and Interdisciplinary Programs. Selected Papers from the Annual Conference on Non-Traditional and Interdisciplinary Programs, 2nd, Arlington, Virginia, June 27-29.

Collection totals 313 pages. Document Type: conference proceedings. A total of 47 papers are presented from the George Mason University (Virginia) second annual conference on nontraditional, interdisciplinary, and external degree programs.

McCormick, Donald W. (October 1990) "The Painful Emotions of Prior Experiential Learning Assessment." Adult Learning 2(2), 26-28.

Document Type: journal article; position paper. The process of assessing prior experiential learning can be painful as adults analyze traumatic or embarrassing experiences, revisit disturbing problems, and find their confidence in past experiences shaken. Descriptors: Adults; Emotional Problems; Experiential Learning; Higher Education; Portfolios (Background Materials); Prior Learning; Reentry Students; Self Esteem. ISSN: 1045-1595. 

Miller, Beverley. (May 1994) Learning From the English Experience: A Study of the Assessment of Prior Learning in England. Douglas College. [63 pages plus appendices]

Ontario Council of Regents' Prior Learning Assessment Advisory Committee. (1992) PLA: Enhancing the Access of Adult Learners to Ontario's Colleges (Final Report).

Open Learning Agency. (1997) PLA Training Modules. Burnaby, B.C.: Open Learning Agency.

Prepared by PLA practitioners in British Columbia, ten training modules developed to facilitate PLA education and training sessions and ensure the quality of training offered to advisors, assessors, and others involved in the implementation of PLA. The modules include over 500 pages of material, and the titles include: Introduction; Advising and Supporting Candidates; Introduction to Assessment; Applying Good Practice in Assessment; Marketing PLA; Implications for Curriculum; Institutional Systems for Supporting Learners; PLA Materials; Ensuring Quality and Cost-Effectiveness; Introducing PLA to Employers.

Pies, Timothy. (July/August 1996) "Faculty Ownership of a Prior Learning Program." Adult Learning 7(6), 13-14.

Document Type: position paper; journal article. Offers suggestions for spreading ownership of a prior learning program: sharing the program's philosophy; conducting workshops; arranging informal gatherings; assigning tutors; establishing a faculty committee; soliciting ideas; recruiting faculty; acting as liaison; publishing guidelines; convincing others of the program's value; and revealing developing trends. Descriptors: Adult Education; Adult Educators; Experiential Learning; Prior Learning; Teacher Role.

Reilly, Richard R., and others. (1977) Expert Assessment of Experiential Learning -- A CAEL Handbook. Princeton, NJ: Cooperative Assessment of Experiential Learning Project.

100 pages. Document Type: classroom material. Target Audience: Practitioners. Principles and guidelines for the use of expert judgment of experiential learning are outlined. The report deals with a number of basic issues that apply to expert judgment, such as the role of the evaluator in defining criteria, and structuring the assessment procedure so that it will be reliable and valid. The importance of establishing objectively defined standards is stressed. Four methods of assessment are described: interviews, assessment of student products, performance tests, and assessment of written materials. A number of suggestions for the improvement of assessment and a discussion of problems to avoid are included. Descriptors: Adults; Bias; College Students; Essays; Evaluation Criteria; Evaluation Methods; Evaluators; Experiential Learning; Guidelines; Higher Education; Informal Assessment; Interviews; Learning Experience; Performance Tests; Portfolios (Background Materials); Reliability; Standards; Student Evaluation; Validity; Work Experience; Writing Skills. Sponsoring Agency: Ford Foundation, New York, N.Y.; Fund for the Improvement of Post-secondary Education (DHEW), Washington, D.C.; Lilly Endowment, Inc., Indianapolis, Ind.

Sansregret, M. (1996) Prior Learning Assessment: Principles. Lasalle, PQ: Hurtubise HMH. 

Translation of: La reconnaissance des acquis: principes. Descriptors: Experiential learning; Advanced standing; Prior learning; Student evaluation; Apprentissage par l'experience; Equivalence; Connaissances acquises; Evaluation de l'etudiant. Identifiers: College level; Niveau collegial. ISBN: 2-89428-125-0.

Sansregret, Marthe. (October 1991) "Recognition of Practical Knowledge Through a Prior Learning Assessment Program." Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Association for Adult and Continuing Education, Montreal, Quebec, October 14-20. 

8 pages. Document Type: conference paper. In a society characterized by change, people are faced with many opportunities to acquire practical knowledge outside the traditional environment of academic institutions using the same basic evaluation criteria and guarantee the validity and reliability of assessment. A prior learning assessment (PLA) program has the following economic benefits: it attracts a newly motivated adult clientele to return to school; it builds on what they already know; and it fills the enrollment gap left by a decreasing younger population. The ideological principles of justice and equity, ethics and morals, and responsibility are putting serious pressure on academic institutions to assess prior learning using the same basic evaluation criteria and to guarantee the validity and reliability of assessment. To apply these principles, four steps are required in a sound and valid PLA program: (1) program planning by administrators; (2) identification of student learning by a counselor; (3) assessment of learning by professors; and (4) accreditation by administrators. Faced with constant change, colleges and universities must modify their mandate and assess what has been learned outside their supervision. Descriptors: Adults; Advanced Placement; Certification; College Credits; Evaluation Methods; Experiential Learning; Foreign Countries; Higher Education; Lifelong Learning; Nontraditional Students; Portfolios (Background Materials); Prior Learning; Student Evaluation; Student Experience; Student Placement; Work Experience.

Sansregret, Marthe. (October 1986) "Access by Mature Students to Higher Education. The Canadian Experience of Experiential Learning in Higher Education." Paper presented at a conference of the Scottish Institute of Adult and Continuing Education and the Association for Recurrent Education Glasgow, Scotland.

19 pages. Document Type: project description; conference paper. Target Audience: Practitioners. In view of the importance of recognizing and documenting the prior learning of adult students returning to higher education, a project was undertaken to research, construct a system, and write materials for use in assessing the experiential learning acquired by students seeking access to higher education. An extensive research effort was conducted, and a system to oversee the assessment of the prior learning of mature students was proposed. The system provides for assessment by andragogical counselors and assessors who report to a prior learning program director, who in turn reports to the program's central administration. The system does not award credits for experience as such but rather only for learning outcomes. The identification criteria developed for the program stipulate that the learning must be measurable, college level, applicable outside the specific context in which it was learned, and relatively current. Furthermore, the learning in question must have both a theoretical and applied component, serve as a base for further learning, and show some relationship to the person's degree goal. Projects are now underway in 11 colleges and various universities in Quebec, and a series of materials for use by administrators, counselors, assessors, and students is being developed. The assessment process that was proposed on the basis of the Quebec experience entails having a program director, department chairman, and jury examine a student's complete portfolio and gives students the right to appeal any decision made. Descriptors: Access to Education; Adult Students; Educational Practices; Educational Trends; Evaluation Criteria; Evaluation Methods; Experiential Learning; Higher Education; Nontraditional Students; Portfolios (Background Materials); Prior Learning; Student Certification; Student Evaluation; Student Experience Identifiers: Canada.

Sansregret, Marthe. (1985) Recognition of Prior Learning. Administrator's Guide. Quebec City: Quebec Department of Education.

80 pages. English translation funded by the Federation des Cegeps du Quebec and the Quebec Ministere de l'Enseignement Superieur, de la Science et de la Technologie. Document Type: non-classroom material. Target Audience: Administrators; Practitioners. This guide is designed for administrators of universities, colleges, school boards, and private institutions who wish to consider the implementation of a program for the recognition of prior learning within their institutions. To explain the possibility of transferring learning skills, some examples of the recognition of prior learning are presented in chapter I. Chapter II provides an overview of the various steps that preceded the writing of this guide and gives the sources of the information. Chapter III presents a brief history of the recognition of prior learning. Chapter IV deals with the rationale for the recognition of prior learning in academic institutions. Chapter V facilitates the understanding of the vocabulary that is used for the recognition of experiential learning. A few definitions and propositions are presented. The ways of recognizing learning acquired in a nontraditional way are explained in chapter VI. Chapter VII covers quality control. Chapter VIII gives an overview of the main parties involved in the program for the recognition of prior learning, and chapter IX proposes to administrators an operational model in 12 steps and identifies the various groups of participants. Resources are listed. Descriptors: Adult Education; Adult Students; College Credits; Experiential Learning; Goal Orientation; Portfolios (Background Materials); Postsecondary Education; Prior Learning; Program Implementation; Work Experience. ISBN-2-551-06553-4.

Shipton, Jane, and Elizabeth Steltenpohl. (December 1981) "Relating Assessment of Prior Learning to Educational Planning." New Directions for Experiential Learning (Financing and Implementing Prior Learning Assessment) 14, 49-69. 

Adult students, it is suggested, are not adequately prepared to plan their education and relate it to the assessment of prior learning. Educational goal clarification enhances a student's ability to participate actively in educational planning and to integrate prior learning into the total plan. Descriptors (major): Adult Students; Educational Objectives; Educational Planning ; Portfolios (Background Materials); Prior Learning; (minor): Cognitive Style; Educational Development; Higher Education; Models.

Simosko, Susan. (1991) Assessment of Prior Learning: A Practical Guide for Professionals. London: Kogan Page.

Simosko, Susan, and Cathy Cook. (1996) Applying APL Principles in Flexible Assessment: A Practical Guide. 2nd ed. London: Kogan Page.

200 pages. As this updated new edition illustrates, flexible assessment systems can be effectively established in academic, training and employment contexts. Properly set up, they can help individuals to achieve qualifications and other personal learning goals in less time and, frequently, at less expense. They can also enable organizations to make better use of existing resources and promote more independent learning and development among their students, trainees, or employees. This book gives practical advice on how to: apply the concept of APL to flexible assessment services, advise and support candidates through the assessment process, assess candidates using diverse evidence, design staff development programmes and explore wider organizational issues, systems and services. This second edition offers guidance to all those professionals who want or need to establish cost-effective, learner-centred flexible assessment services.

Smith, Alison, and Diane Preston. (1993) "APL: Current State of Play with Management Education in the UK." Journal of Management Development 12(8): 27-38.

Examines the levels of interest and involvement with APL (Accreditation of Prior Learning) within an industrial region of the UK and raises some doubts and concerns. Descriptors: National Vocational Qualifications; Training and Enterprise Councils; Competence; Qualifications; Accreditation (Courses); Accrediting Authorities. Identifiers: Accreditation of Prior Learning; Management Charter Initiative.

Spille, Henry, et al. (1980) "Assuring High Standards, Quality Control, and Consistency." New Directions for Experiential Learning 7, 7-13.

Five contributors identify essential means for the college to assure high standards, quality control, and consistency in assessing the prior learning of adults. Types of learning include work or military experience and life experience; assessment methods include examination, portfolio examination, and competence-based programs. Descriptors: Academic Standards; Educational Quality; Equivalency Tests; Experiential Learning; Nontraditional Students; Prior Learning; Adult Education; College Credits; Evaluation Methods; Higher Education; Quality Control; Reliability; Student Evaluation.

Whitaker, U. (1989) Assessing Learning: Standards, Principles, Procedures. Philadelphia: Council for Adult and Experiential Learning. 

130 pages. Document Type: review literature; project description. Target Audience: Teachers; Practitioners. The monograph provides a systematic explication of the underlying standards and principles that have been developed to help adult learners articulate what they know and can do, to clarify their claims to creditable achievement, to help assessors improve the reliability of assessment, and to save assessor time. Ten academic and administrative standards for quality assurance in assessing prior learning for credit are discussed. The academic standards are relevant to the assessment process itself; the administrative standards are related to the administrative context in which the assessment and the award of credit occur. The monograph is divided into the following areas of discussion: definitions, propositions, and assumptions; standards for assessing learning; principles and procedures for sponsored learning; principles and procedures for assessing prior experiential learning; administrative measures to safeguard quality assurance; and misconceptions and malpractice. An appendix contains principle and procedure checklists and lists of accrediting associations and experiential learning organizations. Descriptors: Academic Achievement; Administration; Adult Learning; College Credits; College Preparation; College Students; Competence; Evaluation Methods; Experiential Learning; Higher Education; Measures (Individuals); Prior Learning; Quality Control; Standards; Student Evaluation. ISBN: 07872-3348X.

Willingham, Warren W. (March 1976) CAEL Project Status Report: Cooperative Assessment of Experiential Learning. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service.

25 pages. Document Type: research report. The Cooperative Assessment of Experiential Learning (CAEL) project is designed to develop appropriate concepts, methods, procedures, techniques, and instruments for the assessment of experiential learning and to validate such ideas, processes, and materials through large scale tryout on many college campuses. The status report concerns CAEL's developmental phase during which experimental assessment materials and procedures were developed and described in preliminary working papers, and the validation and utilization phase. This phase included activities in the evaluation and revision of assessment procedures and materials; cooperative work on problems of implementing new assessment techniques; faculty development; and continuation of the forum and governance functions of the member institutions. Descriptors: Educational Assessment; Educational Development; Educational Innovation; Evaluation; Evaluation Methods; Higher Education; Learning Activities; Learning Experience; Lifelong Learning. Identifiers: Cooperative Assessment of Experiential Learning.

Wolf, Alison. (1995) Competence Based Assessment. Buckingham, Eng.: Open University Press.

Wolfson, Gloria Krupnick. (March 1996) Prior Learning Assessment: A Case Study of Acceptance of Innovation and Change. Fort Lauderdale, FL: A major applied research project, Nova Southeastern University. 

Zakos, Paul. (October 1994) Prior Learning Assessment Policies: An International Discussion. Deseronto, Ont.: First Nations Technical Institute. [Conference presentation, 15 pages]

Zakos, Paul. (October 1991) Prior Learning Assessment: Background Paper. For the Ontario Council of Regents Consultation Process. Tyendinaga Mohawk Territory, Ont.: First Nations Technical Institute.
 

6 pages. This paper is intended to highlight some of the major developments in the process of PLA over the past 20 years. Emphasis is placed on the important role played by CAEL as an advocate for improved services to adult learners and its significant contributions to the theory and practice of PLA. Some attempt is made to identify the "principles of good practice" in the assessment of learning, the nature of the portfolio development process, and the key role which it plays in current assessment practices.

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