Implementation of PLAR in Formal Education
Methods of Assessment: Portfolio:
Handbooks/How-to Manuals

Algonquin College. (1998) Portfolio Development. CD-ROM. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson. 

The CD-ROM is designed to be used independently or in conjunction with a workshop series. The CD-ROM provides real-life video clips of students and faculty who have completed a portfolio. Students use a "Locator Map" to navigate through the CD-ROM from the beginning reflective process through to complete portfolio. Algonquin College now has a new Instructor's Manual designed to complement the CD-ROM. This manual is especially helpful for those educators and institutions looking for additional instructional design strategies for use with multi-medial. Contains five modules -- Looking Back, Looking Forward, Taking Inventory, Documenting Achievements, Portfolio Assembly.

Barnett, Bruce G., and Patty Lee. (Summer 1994) "Assessment Processes and Outcomes: Building a Folio." New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education 62, 55-62.

Document Type: position paper; journal article. The first step in portfolio construction is building a folio -- accumulation of all possible materials documenting a person's learning. Materials may include artifacts created by the learner and attestations from other people and organizations. Descriptors: Adult Education; Experiential Learning; Outcomes of Education; Portfolio Assessment; Portfolios (Background Materials); Student Evaluation. ISSN: 0195-2242.

Benton, Nena. (1995) Recognition of Prior Learning: A Personal Guide to Developing Your Portfolio. Wellington: New Zealand Council for Educational Research. 

56 pages. Making a lifelong habit of documenting gained knowledge and skills can be both rewarding and advantageous. This book takes the learner through the process of portfolio development, step by step. Useful for anyone making the transition to further education.

Dance, Muriel, et al. (1997) Student Handbook on Prior Learning Assessment: Instructions for Portfolio Development. External Doctor of Pharmacy Degree Program at the University of Washington and Washington State University.

Day, M., and L. Basford. (1995) Guidelines for Developing a Portfolio. Department of Community and Primary Care. Sheffield, Eng.: School of Nursing and Midwifery, University of Sheffield. [ISBN: 1 900225 05 0]

Deiro, Judy. (1983) Prior Learning Experiences: Handbook for Portfolio Process. Alternative Learning Experiences. Bellingham, Wash.: Whatcom Community College.

93 pages. Document Type: instructional material. Target Audience: Practitioners; Students. This handbook presents information to aid students in applying for prior learning credit at Whatcom Community College (WCC). First, introductory material outlines the types of activities that may qualify a student for prior experiential learning credit and presents a flowchart illustrating the accrediting process. Next, a step-by-step guide is provided for developing a portfolio, that is, a written statement describing and documenting prior learning. The 12 steps are: (1) clarify career and educational goals; (2) write an autobiography; (3) determine life experiences that contributed to learning; (4) categorize learning according to department and program; (5) develop a career plan; (6) develop a competency statement for each course equivalent; (7) write descriptions of experiences and learning; (8) develop a rationale for each requested course equivalent; (9) document learning experiences; (10) supply an annotated bibliography for course equivalents; (11) negotiate evaluation for each course equivalent; and (12) compile completed portfolios. Samples, case studies, forms, worksheets, and checklists are provided where appropriate. Questions relating to portfolio development are then posed and answered. Appendices include criteria for granting credit; information on credit policies, guidelines, and evaluation methods; a sample portfolio; a list of academic departments and subjects; and student notebooks. Descriptors: College Credits; Community Colleges; Educational Experience; Employment Experience; Experiential Learning; Portfolios (Background Materials); Prior Learning; Two Year Colleges.

First Nations Technical Institute. (1992) Prior Learning Assessment and the Portfolio. First Nations Technical Institute. Deseronto, Ont.: First Nations Technical Institute.

This pamphlet, written to help adult learners and their facilitators, describes the rationale for prior learning assessment and outlines the process of creating a portfolio that reveals learning and acquired competencies as well as proving creditable professional development skills. The examples used reflect the requirements for a Social Services Worker Program. 16 pages. Descriptors: Colleges of applied arts and technology; Educational experience; Adult students; Native students.

Kimeldorf, Martin. (1994) Creating Portfolios: For Success in School, Work, and Life. Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit Publishing.

85 pages. This book helps students to produce meaningful, useful portfolios for a variety of purposes, and leads them through a series of exercises that result in a finished, focused portfolio. Describes four types of portfolios -- student, project, expert and professional, and personal. Contains exercises and worksheets for portfolio creation and presentation.

Loyalist College, Academic Resources.Portfolio-Assisted PLA Portfolio Development. Belleville, Ont.: Loyalist College.

See abstract under 2.) Implementation of PLAR in Formal Education; F.) Methods of Assessment; 1.) Portfolio; A.) Portfolio Courses.

MacIsaac, Doug, and Lewis Jackson. (Summer 1994) "Assessment Processes and Outcomes: Portfolio Construction." New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education 62, 63-72. 

Document Type: position paper; journal article. A portfolio is a carefully edited collection of artifacts and attestations selected from a folio. It serves as a documented history of learning and a structured record of accomplishment. It may be used for self-evaluation, for progress assessment in adult education, or as a vehicle for engaging learners in active reflection on experience. Descriptors: Adult Education; Experiential Learning; Outcomes of Education; Portfolio Assessment; Portfolios (Background Materials); Student Evaluation. ISSN: 0195-2242.

Mohawk College of Applied Arts and Technology, Dept. of Office Administration. (1992) Credit for Prior Experiential Learning: Information Package for Portfolio Creation. Hamilton: Mohawk College of Applied Arts and Technology.

6 pages. Handbook. This information package for potential students provides general information for the student to develop a portfolio to be used to validate their prior learning. It provides basic guidelines for describing courses completed previously and for outlining other accomplishments that provide evidence of learning. Gives details of the format for presentation. Appendices include student academic appeals policy and procedures for Mohawk College, and a list of the 10 steps in the application procedure. Descriptors: Colleges of applied arts and technology; Educational experience; Access to education; Adult students; Student evaluation; College d'arts appliques et de technologie; Experience educative; Acces a l'education; Etudiant adulte; Evaluation de l'etudiant.

Rolls, Dorothea M. (April 1987) "Documenting Experiential Learning. Preparation of a Portfolio for College Credit: Techniques." Lifelong Learning 10(6), 19-21. 

4 pages. Document Type: instructional material; journal article. Target Audience: Students. Increasing numbers of colleges and universities are responding to the needs of adults seeking professional training and have come to recognize the value of experiential learning. One method of assessing previous learning is to prepare a portfolio with documentation of life experiences as they related to the learning process. The East Central College Consortium, which is made up of eight colleges in Ohio and Pennsylvania, currently offers an assessment system whereby authorized faculty members from whom a petitioner is seeking credit evaluate a portfolio consisting of seven elements. The first six of these are a resume, an autobiography, a specific credit request, an abstract of learning outcomes, an explanation of learning outcomes (in which the petitioner attempts to explain the relationship of the learning outcomes to the credits requested), and a statement of educational goals. The seventh element -- documentation of work experience, community service activities, non-credit courses and other training, and special accomplishments -- can be presented in various forms including awards, letters of corroboration from superiors or peers, congratulatory messages of high performance, awards, newspaper and magazine clippings, diplomas, certificates, records of military service or training, books or articles published, writing samples, and lectures given on specific topics. After the assessor reviews the portfolio, a consortium board makes the final decision as to the amount of credit to be awarded. Descriptors: Adult Education; College Credits; Documentation; Experiential Learning; Portfolios (Background Materials); Post-secondary Education; Prior Learning; Student Certification Identifiers: East Central College Consortium.

Sansregret, Marthe. (1993) Prior Learning Assessment: The Portfolio (Manual and disc). Lasalle, PQ: Hurtubise HMH.

Sansregret, Marthe. (1985) Recognition of Prior Learning. The Portfolio. Student's Guide. Quebec City: Quebec Department of Education.

161 pages. English translation funded by the Federation des Cegeps du Quebec and the Quebec Ministere de l'Enseignement Superieur, de la Science et de la Technologie. Document Type: instructional material. Target Audience: Students. This guide provides the adult student with information on developing a portfolio. Chapter I is designed to give the student an idea of what is involved when one participates in a program for the recognition of prior learning. Chapter II covers the various steps that the student will have to undertake to review his/her life and work experience, identify career and educational objectives, and identify and verify prior learning and the correspondence of this learning to credit courses. Information is also presented on projecting an educational program and receiving information about requests for credit and recognition by the assessors. Descriptors: Adult Education; Adult Students; College Credits; Experiential Learning; Goal Orientation; Independent Study; Material Development; Portfolios (Background Materials); Post-secondary Education; Prior Learning; Work Experience. Report No: ISBN-2-551-06551-8.

Sansregret, Marthe. (1984) La Reconnaissance des acquis: Le Portfolio. Lasalle, PQ: Hurtubise HMH.

Thomas A. Edison State College. (1990) Portfolio Assessment Handbook. 1990-91. Trenton, NJ: Thomas A. Edison State College.

56 pages. Document Type: non-classroom material. Target Audience: Students. This handbook gives the adult student information to complete portfolios that are designed to help adult students earn college credits for outside experience. Portfolio assessment is a flexible and efficient way to earn college credit. Nearly any area of learning can be converted into credits as long as it is taught at a regionally accredited college or university and the student can prove expertise in the subject. The portfolio is a collection of data assembled in an approved format to demonstrate college-level knowledge for the award of credit. The five steps in putting a portfolio together include: (1) taking an inventory of one's knowledge; (2) choosing the area for which one wants college credit; (3) finding course descriptions to match one's learning; (4) providing evidence of one's knowledge; and (5) describing what one knows and how one knows it. Other aspects of the portfolio assessment process are described, including fees and policies of the college. Examples of narratives are provided, and the registration form and course selection cover sheets for applying to the Thomas A. Edison State College in Trenton (New Jersey) are included. Descriptors: Adult Education; Adult Students; College Applicants; College Credits; Educational Assessment; Evaluation Methods; Experiential Learning; Guides; Higher Education; Informal Assessment; Knowledge Level; Portfolios (Background Materials); Prior Learning; Special Degree Programs; Student Records.

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