Implementation of PLAR in Formal Education
Methods of Assessment: Portfolio:

Assiter, Alison, and Eileen Shaw, eds. (1993) Using Records of Achievement in Higher Education. London: Kogan Page.

160 pages. Document Type: collection; book. This collection of 22 essays examines the use of records of achievement (student profiles or portfolios) in higher and vocational education in the United Kingdom. They include: (1) "Records of Achievement: Background, Definitions, and Uses" (Alison Assiter and Eileen Shaw); (2) "Profiling in Higher Education" (Alison Assiter and Angela Fenwick); (3) "Records of Achievement and Admission to Higher Education" (Richard Gretton); (4) "Passport Scheme" (Heather Hughes Jones); (5) "Recording of Achievement within Accreditation of Prior Learning: A Case for Three Capabilities" (Lovemore Nyatanga and Jane Fox); (6) "Portfolio Development for National Vocational Qualifications" (Howard Foster); (7) "Some Institutional and Practical Implications of Introducing Records of Achievement" (Ros McCulloch); (8) "Maintaining the Ethos of Records of Achievement in Higher Education Curriculum and Assessment" (Lesley Cooke and Maggie Taylor); (9) "Using Portfolios for Personal and Career Development" (Roger Harrison); (10) "The Record of Achievement as a Learning Resource for All Students" (Marilyn Wedgewood and Joyce Godfrey); (11) "Profiling and Assessment of Professional and Personal Transferable Skills Acquired by Students on a BSc Honours Course in Psychology" (Beryl Starr); (12) "Using Portfolios to Record Progress and Assess Achievement" (Roger Payne and others); (13) "Developing Student-Centred Records of Achievement on an M. Eng. Course" (Roy Gregory and Lin Thorley); (14) "Records of Achievement in Relation to Personal Learning" (Katherine Cuthbert); (15) "Student Empowerment Through the Recording and Reviewing Process: Theatre in Education with Student Teachers" (Karen Carter); (16) "Using Information Technology for a Student-Produced Record of Achievement" (Keith Selkirk); (17) "Diploma of Personal and Professional Development" (Helen C. Gladstone); (18) "Recording Learning and Development on Sandwich Placements" (Sue Drew and Keith Willis); (19) "Self-Development: The Buck Stops Here" (Nigel Smalls); (20) "Records of Achievement and Self-Development: A Business Initiative in Argos" (Danny Moy); (21) "Why Use Records of Achievement? An Employer's Perspective" (Rob Bellis); and (22) "The Future Role of Recording Achievement" (Alison Assiter and Eileen Shaw). Descriptors: Academic Achievement; College Admission; College Curriculum; Definitions; Educational Attitudes; Educational Trends; Employer Attitudes; Evaluation Methods; Foreign Countries; Higher Education; Individual Development; Information Technology; Institutional Role; Portfolios (Background Materials); Professional Development; Student Centered Curriculum; Student Development; Student Evaluation; Vocational Education. Identifiers: Records of Achievement (United Kingdom); United Kingdom. ISBN: 0-7494-1111-2.

Barba, Marianne P., and others. (Spring/Summer 1985) "Portfolio Assessment: An Alternate Strategy for Placement of the RN Student in a Baccalaureate Program." Innovative Higher Education 9(2): 121-27. 

Document Type: journal article; project description; The use of a portfolio as an "alternative transcript" is discussed. Concepts explored include evaluation of prior learning, assessment of prior learning, rationale for developing a portfolio, and the articulation of verifiable learning outcomes with course and program objectives. Descriptors: Academic Records; Bachelors Degrees; Evaluation Methods; Higher Education; Nontraditional Education; Nurses; Nursing Education; Portfolios (Background Materials); Prior Learning. Identifiers: Rhode Island College.

Budnick, Diane, and Shirley Beaver. (September/October 1984) "A Student Perspective on the Portfolio." Nursing Outlook 35(5), 268-69.

Document Type: journal article; position paper; project description. The authors explain their decision to create portfolios to obtain credit for prior learning. They discuss basic elements for an outline, major headings for the resume, contents of the narrative portion, documentation, faculty review of the portfolio, and advantages and disadvantages. Descriptors: College Credits; Documentation; Experiential Learning; Higher Education; Nursing Education; Portfolios (Background Materials); Prior Learning; Professional Development. Identifiers: Outlines; Resumes (Personal).

Case, S. (1994) "Will Mandating Portfolios Undermine Their Value?" Educational Leadership52(2), 46-47.

Central Region PLA Pilot Project Team, Ontario. (Fall 1993) Portfolio-Assisted Assessment of Prior Learning: Principles, Methods, and Resources. Workshop Overview. Toronto: Ontario Ministry of Education and Training.

Coons, Diane, and Lynda Morgan Murdoch. (April 1994) Portfolio Development for Students of ESL: Report on a Pilot Project. Hamilton, Ont.: Mohawk College. [250 pages]

Dagavarian, Debra A. (February 1989) Portfolio Assessment. Project Report. Washington, DC, and Trenton, NJ: American Association of State Colleges and Universities; Thomas A. Edison State Coll. 

9 pages. Document Type: project description. The portfolio assessment process at Thomas A. Edison State College is described in this report. Through portfolio assessment, the school helps students identify and gain credit for college-level skills and knowledge acquired through work, volunteer activities, independent reading, military or corporate training, and life experiences that may be hard to demonstrate by traditional methods. Students earn college credits by proving what they know, regardless of how they learned it. They put together a portfolio of documents, paperwork, and evidence that verifies college-level knowledge. Portfolio advisors help students review rough drafts of material, identify the best documentation, verify learning, and make relevant decisions about their portfolios. Documentation can include such things as computer programs, poems, artwork, tapes, and letters from employers. The entire assessment process may take from a month to a year, and students may begin working on the portfolios at any time during the year. If the student has a great deal of knowledge in a particular field but no documentation to prove it, it is possible to opt for an exam. A portfolio includes the course description, narrative, and evidence. A qualified faculty assessor reviews the portfolio and makes recommendations either to award or deny credit or requests additional information or testing. About 90% of all credits requested through this program are awarded. Descriptors: Access to Education; College Students; Credentials; Educational Innovation; Experiential Learning; Higher Education; Models; Nontraditional Education; Portfolios (Background Materials); Prior Learning; Program. Descriptions; State Colleges; Work Experience. Identifiers: AASCU ERIC Model Programs Inventory Project; Thomas A Edison State College NJ. This report is one of a group gathered by the AASCU/ERIC Model Programs Inventory Project, funded by the Fund for the Improvement of Post-secondary Education to the American Association of State Colleges and Universities, in collaboration with the ERIC Clearinghouse on Higher Education.

Engel, B. (1994) "Portfolio Assessment and the New Paradigm: New Instruments and New Places." Educational Forum 59, 22-27.

Glendenning, Donald. (Winter 1995) "Swamped by Portfolios: Prior Learning Assessment." Canadian Vocational Journal 31(2), 18.

Hayes, Marilyn Jo. (1994) Prior Learning Assessment and Portfolio Development in the New College Program at St. Edward's University, Austin, Texas. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Texas at Austin. 

Jarvinen, A., and V. Kohonen. (1995) "Professional Development in Higher Education Through Portfolio Assessment." Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education 20(1), 25-36.

J.M.J Group. (June 1996) Portfolio Builder and Assessment System (PBAS): A Multimedia Solution in the Management of PLAR. [9 pages]

Jones, J.E. (1994) "Portfolio Assessment as a Strategy for Self-Direction in Learning." New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education 64, 23-29.

Kemp, W., R. Smith, and G. Van Sant. (June 1984) "Evaluating Experiential Learning: The Portfolio." In James W. Fonseca, Comp. Non-Traditional and Interdisciplinary Programs. Selected Papers from the Annual Conference on Non-Traditional and Interdisciplinary Programs, 2nd, Arlington, Virginia, June 27-29.

Collection totals 313 pages. Document Type: conference proceedings. A total of 47 papers are presented from the George Mason University (Virginia) second annual conference on nontraditional, interdisciplinary, and external degree programs.

Keynes, Milton. (1992) E530-A Portfolio Approach to Personal and Career. Open University.

Kimeldorf, Martin. (May 1997) Portfolio Power: The New Way to Showcase All Your Job Skills and Experiences. Toronto: ITP Nelson.

Knight, Michael E., and Denise Gallaro, eds. (1994) Portfolio Assessment: Applications of Portfolio Analysis. Lanham, MD: University Press of America.

Knapp, Joan, and Marianne Gardiner. (December 1981) "Assessment of Prior Learning: As a Model and in Practice." New Directions for Experiential Learning (Financing and Implementing Prior Learning Assessment) 14, 7-31.

Portfolio assessment, designed after the model disseminated originally by the Cooperative Assessment of Experiential Learning (CAEL) project, has become the technique of choice in prior learning programs as well as the foundation for adult degree programs. Innovations and changes in the assessment process are discussed. Descriptors (major): Certification; College Credits; Evaluation Methods; Experiential Learning; Portfolios (Background Materials); Prior Learning (minor): Educational Planning; Higher Education; Models.

Kytle, Jackson, and Eric Zencey. (Summer 1994) "Of Carts, Horses, and Trojan Gifts: The Transformative Task of Prior Learning Assessment." CAEL Forum and News, 17(2): 7-10.

Document Type: position paper; journal article. Discusses the prevailing conventions of portfolio assessment specifically where experiential learning is tied to course equivalents. Suggests that further discussion is needed about prior learning assessment, traditional education, and how to use experience to advance understanding of learning. Descriptors: Adult Education; Evaluation Methods; Experiential Learning; Prior Learning. Identifiers: Portfolio Assessment.

Llewellyn, Nick. (1992) "Capability -- An Expert System To Support the Accreditation of Prior Learning." Aspects of Educational and Training Technology Series 25, 62-64.

Document Type: project description; conference paper; journal article. Capability is an expert system designed to support the process of compiling portfolios for competence-based assessment, particularly accreditation of prior leaning. The system was designed to provide cost effective management, consistency of rigour, support for tutors in accreditation workshops, and a structured approach to counseling. Outlines system design and development and discusses the accreditation process. Descriptors: Accreditation (Institutions); Competence; Cost Effectiveness; Decision Support Systems; Educational Administration; Educational Counseling; Experiential Learning; Expert Systems; Portfolios (Background Materials); Prior Learning; Reliability; Tutors; Workshops. Identifiers: Accreditation Standards; Competency Based Evaluation.

Loyalist College and First Nations Technical Institute. (February 1994) Portfolio-Assisted Assessment of Prior Learning: Principles, Methods, and Resources. Orientation Manual for Assessors.

This manual was developed during 1992-93 as a pilot project funded by the Ministry of Education and Training as part of the province-wide PLA implementation strategy.

Marsh, Helen F., and Patricia A. Laskey. (September/October 1984) "The Professional Portfolio: Documentation of Prior Learning." Nursing Outlook 32(5), 264-276.

Document Type: journal article; project description. Discusses the professional portfolio as (1) evidence of knowledge and skills gained through prior learning and experience; (2) a placement tool for faculty, and (3) useful in a student's program planning. Describes the concept and development of the portfolio's narrative and documentation sections. Also rates the portfolio's advantages and disadvantages. Descriptors: Credentials; Documentation; Experiential Learning; Higher Education; Learning Experience; Nontraditional Education; Portfolios (Background Materials); Prior Learning; Professional Development; Program Development; Qualifications; Skill Development; Student Placement; Student Records. Identifiers: Resumes (Personal).

Northwest Regional Educational Lab. (November 1991) Portfolio Resources. Portland, OR: Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland Test Center.

59 pages. Updates of "Portfolio Resources" will be issued regularly; users should look for the latest version. Printed on coloured paper. Document Type: serial; bibliography. This updated annotated bibliography presents articles about portfolio assessment uses collected and reviewed by the Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory (NREL) Test Center to date. Documents have been obtained from a number of sources, including consortium efforts by the Northwest Evaluation Association and the Alaska State Department of Education. This reorganized and updated version has two sections. The first covers all articles reviewed between December 1989 and July 1991, in alphabetical order by primary author. The second section contains articles reviewed after July 1991, also listed by primary author. The second section will be updated two or three times a year and all new articles will be added to the main bibliography once a year. Articles cover diverse subjects, including both student and staff portfolios, and theoretical and practical approaches to portfolio use. A set of descriptors has been developed, and an index using the descriptors is provided. In Alaska, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington these articles can be obtained on three-week loan from the NREL Test Center; users in other states must contact the author of the article. Part 1 of this document lists the primary author(s), title, source, shelf number, and brief summary of 94 articles. Part 2 lists the primary author(s), title, source, shelf number, and brief summary of 25 articles. A six-page index for Part 1 is included. Descriptors: Annotated Bibliographies; Educational Assessment; Elementary Secondary Education; Evaluation Methods; Experiential Learning; Higher Education; Personnel Evaluation; Personnel Selection; Portfolios (Background Materials); Research Reports; Student Evaluation; Theory Practice Relationship Identifiers: Performance Based Evaluation.

Ontario Council of Regents for Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology. Prior Learning Assessment Advisory and Coordinating Group. (October 1993) A Manual for Trainers of Prior Learning Assessors: Using the Portfolio Method and Challenge Processes: Part One. Toronto: Ontario Council of Regents.

Ontario Council of Regents for Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology. Prior Learning Assessment Advisory and Coordinating Group. (October 1993) A Manual for Trainers of Prior Learning Assessors: Using the Portfolio Method and Challenge Processes: Part Two. Toronto: Ontario Council of Regents.

Rydell, Susan. (1982) Credible Portfolios: Dimensions in Diversity. Chicago: CAEL.

Savitz, Fred R. (1984) "A Prototype for Portfolio Development." Community Services Catalyst 15(4).

Serling, Albert M. (1980) "Credit for Learning: The Composite-Portfolio Model." New Directions for Experiential Learning (Developing New Adult Clienteles by Recognizing Prior Learning) 7, 43-56.

A composite-portfolio approach that uses all major systems of assessing prior learning of adults for degree credit, exemplified by the portfolio process in use at Empire State College of the State University of New York is described and illustrated.

Thermer, Clifford E. (1996) "The Portfolio Perspective: Authentic Assessment for Experiential Training". ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED396166.

9 pages. Document Type: project description. Authentic assessment differs from traditional paper-and-pencil assessment in that it is designed to reflect students' "real world" experience. Authentic assessments may assume a variety of forms (including demonstrations, oral interviews/presentations, simulations, self-assessments, and peer/instructor evaluations); however, their focus is always on evaluating learners' mastery and performance of training objectives rather than on degree of compliance or conformity. Portfolios are considered a form of authentic assessment because they examine students' performance in naturalistic settings over time by including student materials documenting those students' learning experiences in a variety of challenges during training. The usefulness of portfolios as a tool for authentic assessment may be seen through an examination of the use of portfolios in the 2-week experiential training program completed by new recruits of the Connecticut State Police. The experiential training program, which takes place at the culmination of 26 weeks of intense training, allows recruits to experience a myriad of situations that might be encountered in the field. The portfolio of materials developed by the recruits as they respond to those situations allows them to reflect on and gain insight into their own performance while also obtaining valuable feedback from their field training officers. Descriptors: Adult Education; Educational Practices; Experiential Learning; On the Job Training; Personnel Evaluation; Police; Police Education; Portfolio Assessment; Work Experience Programs Identifiers: Authentic Assessment. 

Vermont State College. (No date) Guidelines to be Used in Assessing Portfolios and in Awarding College Credit for Prior-Experiential Learning. Waterbury, VT: Vermont State College, Office of External Programs. [3 pages]

Westwood, Ralph. (September 1998) Two Portfolio Examples: A Supplement to Portfolios and Learning Passports. A Discussion Paper. Prepared for the Adult Skills Alberta PLAR Task Team.

Westwood, Ralph. (July 1998) Portfolios and Learning Passports in Prior Learning Assessment and Recognition: A Discussion Paper. Prepared for the Adult Skills Alberta PLAR Task Team. [74 pages]

Zakos, Paul. (March 1996) The Role of Portfolio-Assisted PLA in the Development of Healthy Communities. Deseronto, Ont.: First Nations Technical Institute. [17 pages]

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