Implementation of PLAR in Formal Education
Methods of Assessment: Challenge Process
Cantin, Solange. (1989) Guidelines for Developing In-House Tests for College-Level Prior Learning Assessment. Montreal: Fonds pour l'implantation de la reconnaissance des acquis au collégial (F.I.R.A.C). [104 pages]
Confederation College of Applied Arts and Technology. Extension Health Department. (1993) PLA Challenge Exam and Exemption Criteria: Perinatal Nursing Certificate Program. Thunder Bay, Ont.: Confederation College of Applied Arts and Technology, Community Education Programs Division, Extension Health Dept.
Confederation College of Applied Arts and Technology. (1993) PLA Clinical Skills Inventory Checklist: WR170 Introductory Perinatal Nursing: Clinical I. Thunder Bay: Confederation College of Applied Arts and Technology, Community Education Programs Division, Extension Health Dept.
Haden, Dan, and Sue Wells. (1994) Evaluation Bias in Prior Learning Assessment Challenge Processes. Scarborough, Ont.: Centennial College, Centre for Instructional Development.
16 pages. Sponsoring Agency: Ontario Council of Regents, Toronto. Document Type: research report. In 1993, the Centre for Instructional Development at Centennial College, Ontario, Canada received funding to investigate the effects of student diversity on prior learning assessment evaluation processes and to develop guidelines to respond to any effects demonstrated. A review of the literature identified six barriers to equitable evaluation: alienation; diminished self-confidence; slow reaction time; impaired vision and hearing; English language difficulty; and learning style. In addition, the literature suggested eight strategies to overcome the identified barriers: neutral language in evaluation instructions; scrutiny to assure bias-free test content; definition of clear outcomes; flexible evaluation to accommodate learning and culture and the use of various means of score analysis; self-administered tests and the provision of evaluation options to students; regular formative evaluation; extending peer-tutoring and other group models to the evaluation process; and performance-based assessment evaluating skills in a natural setting. A survey was conducted at Centennial College to identify evaluation methods that students and faculty felt provided the most fair and equitable opportunity to illustrate students' knowledge and skills. The survey obtained responses from 1,542 continuing education students, 1,688 full-time students, and 156 faculty. The study revealed that some cultural groups had a wide range of experiences with evaluation formats while others had only limited exposure; female students and students under 25 were more experienced with all formats than male students and older students; students who spoke only English at home had more experience with all formats; and students completing their highest educational level 1 to 3 years prior to the survey experienced a broader range of testing than students completing their highest educational level more than 3 years prior to the survey. Based on the literature review and survey findings, faculty were urged to define learning outcomes; carefully consider the evaluation format; examine contents closely; link things to connect personal experience with the challenge process; and provide formative features. Descriptors: Age Differences; Cultural Differences; Evaluation Methods; Evaluation Research; Foreign Countries; Prior Learning; Student Characteristics; Technical Institutes; Test Bias; Test Format; Two Year Colleges. Identifiers: Centennial College of Applied Arts and Tech. ON.
Jacobs, Paul, and Kate Gulliver. (1988) "Using Examinations to Award Credit for Prior Learning." In Assessing Learning: A CAEL Handbook for Faculty. Eds. Susan Simosko, et al. Philadelphia, PA: Council for Adult and Experiential Learning, 51-70.
Ontario Council of Regents for Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology. Prior Learning Assessment Advisory Committee. (November 1993) Recommendations on Challenge Processes [Report]. Toronto: Ontario Council of Regents for Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology.
See abstract under 1.1.07 (PLAR Policy/Canada/Ontario).
Ontario Council of Regents for Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology. Prior Learning Assessment Advisory and Coordinating Group. (October 1993) A Manual for Trainers of Prior Learning Assessors: Using the Portfolio Method and Challenge Processes: Part One. Toronto: Ontario Council of Regents.
Ontario Council of Regents for Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology. Prior Learning Assessment Advisory and Coordinating Group. (October 1993) A Manual for Trainers of Prior Learning Assessors: Using the Portfolio Method and Challenge Processes: Part Two. Toronto: Ontario Council of Regents.
Strain, John. (1989) "Policies in American External Study: Credit for Extra-Institutional Learning." Distance Education 10(2), 230-41.
See abstract under 2.4 (Implementation of PLAR in Formal Education/Distance Learning).
Travis, Thomas G. (October 1995) "Prior Experiential Learning Assessment: Loosening the Grip of the Course-Equivalency Model." In Celebrating Excellence: Learning and Teaching in Adult Higher Education. Proceedings of the 15th National Conference on Alternative and External Degree Programs for Adults. Columbus, Ohio, October 5-7.
Valentine, John. (1980) "Credit
for Learning Assessed by Examination." New Directions for Experiential
Learning (Developing New Adult Clienteles by Recognizing Prior Learning)
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