PLAR Literature for Learners
Advocates for Community-Based Training and Education for Women (ACTEW). (March 1999) Skills and Knowledge Profile. Toronto, ON: Advocates for Community-Based Training and Education for Women (ACTEW) and The New Approaches to Lifelong Learning (NALL) Network.
15 pages. The Skills and Knowledge Profile will help you identify the wide range of skills and experience you have. It will help you give yourself credit for what you learned outside school. This tool might be used in many different ways; for training and education programs, education proposals and for self-assessment.
Advocates for Community-Based Training and Education for Women (ACTEW). (March 1999) Skills and Knowledge Profile. Coach Manual. Toronto, ON: Advocates for Community-Based Training and Education for Women (ACTEW) and The New Approaches to Lifelong Learning (NALL) Network.
11 pages. This manual is to help a coach or support person assist participants in completing the Skills and Knowledge Profile (SKP). Start by reading the Profile. Use this manual as background information and resource material to assist participants who require support. Each section in the Manual corresponds to the headings from the SKP.
Aber, Joanne. (1996) Getting a College Degree Fast: Testing Out and Other Accredited Short Cuts. Amherst, NY: Prometheus.
247 pages. Document Type: book; non-classroom material; general reference. Target Audience: Students; Community. This book, directed especially to individuals over age 30, takes a how-to approach to earning a college degree in the least amount of time for the least amount of money. The book explains how to use fast-track methods such as "testing out," which takes advantage of prior learning, and accredited shortcuts to earn an accelerated degree. The first chapters of the book set out some basics, such as custom designing a degree, assessing academic readiness, understanding learning preferences, setting time lines and budgets, selecting the right college and the best educational options, and accredited shortcuts. One chapter provides an in-depth analysis of the advantages of testing out. The remaining chapters cover the many academic and vocational tests that can be used toward college credit, and list the universities, institutes, and associations that offer tests that may be accepted for college credit. Appendixes provide supplementary information including: a comparison of the content of four prior-learning tests; a list of colleges that work with nontraditional adult students; a mini-quiz to assess academic preparation; and a checklist to be used in selecting a college. Also listed are testing system and accrediting agency addresses. A glossary defines terms used in the book. Descriptors: Academic Aptitude; Academic Aspiration; Academic Persistence; Admission Criteria; Adult Students; Advanced Placement Programs; College Admission; College Choice; College Credits; College Entrance Examinations; Degree Requirements; Higher Education; Nontraditional Education; Prior Learning; Special Degree Programs; Standardized Tests; Test Anxiety; Test Coaching; Test Wiseness. ISBN: 1-57392-001-0.
Anderson, Terry, and Gloria Ross. (August 1992) Earning College Credit for Your Peace Corps Service. Washington, DC: Peace Corps, Information Collection and Exchange Div.
Benton, Nena. (1995) Recognition of Prior Learning: A Personal Guide to Developing Your Portfolio. Wellington: New Zealand Council for Educational Research.
Brain, Susan, and Chelene Koenig. (1994) Prior Learning Assessment in British Columbia: A Guide to Earning Credit for Your Skills and Knowledge. Burnaby, BC: Open Learning Agency.
A joint project of Douglas College, Malaspina University-College, the Open Learning Agency, and University College of the Fraser Valley.
Buckle, J. (1988) A Learner's Introduction to Building on Your Experience. London: Learning From Experience Trust.
Burnie, Brian, Maureen Hynes, and Gail Carrozzino. (1994) Getting the Credit You Deserve: Portfolio Development Course for ESL Speakers. Toronto: George Brown College, School of Labour; Metro Labour Education Centre.
Champlain Regional College. (No date) Earning College Credit Through Prior Learning Assessment: A Student Handbook on Educational Assessment and Portfolio Preparation. St. Lambert, Que.: Champlain Regional College.
Confederation College of Applied Arts and Technology. (1995) Prior Learning Assessment Handbook 1995/96. Thunder Bay: Confederation College.
Confederation College. (1993) Student Handbook for GS 242: Portfolio Development for College Credit for Prior Learning. Thunder Bay, Ont.: Confederation College.
Day, Malcolm. (1996) The Role of the NVQ Assessor: National Vocational Qualifications and the 'D' Units. Edinburgh: Campion Press.
103 pages. Malcolm Day's studies have demonstrated how NVQ and SVQ assessor performance can be significantly affected by the use of complex jargon, the administrative requirements of the assessment, conflicts between work and assessment roles, and a lack of opportunity for practice. The book gives clear and practical examples of how these problems can be overcome, and continually emphasizes the importance of the personal experience and circumstances of the reader. Aimed principally at health care workers, the book will also be relevant and useful to people working in social care, child care, education and criminal justice. Each chapter contains a series of study activities which will enable students to generate evidence towards their NVQ or SVQ award, and a mechanism for recording this progress is included in the book.
Day, M., and L. Basford. (1995) Guidelines for Developing a Portfolio. Department of Community and Primary Care. Sheffield, Eng.: School of Nursing and Midwifery, University of Sheffield. [ISBN: 1 900225 05 0]
Deiro, Judy. (1983) Prior Learning Experiences: Handbook for Portfolio Process. Alternative Learning Experiences. Bellingham, Wash.: Whatcom Community College.
Empire State College. (No date) Credit by Individual Evaluation: A Student's Guide. Saratoga Springs, NY: Empire State College.
First Nations Technical Institute. (1992) Prior Learning Assessment and the Portfolio. Deseronto, Ont.: First Nations Technical Institute.
This pamphlet, written to help adult learners and their facilitators, describes the rationale for prior learning assessment and outlines the process of creating a portfolio that reveals learning and acquired competencies as well as proving creditable professional development skills. The examples used reflect the requirements for a Social Services Worker Program. 16 pages. Descriptors: Colleges of applied arts and technology; Educational experience; Adult students; Native students.
Forrest, Aubrey. (1977) Assessing Prior Learning -- A CAEL Student Guide. Columbia, MD: Cooperative Assessment of Experiential Learning.
113 pages. Sponsoring Agency: Ford Foundation, New York, N.Y.; Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education (DHEW), Washington, D.C.; Lilly Endowment, Inc., Indianapolis, Ind. Document Type: classroom material. Target Audience: Practitioners. This student guide is directed at the adult student who petitions for college credits based on prior experiential learning. It will assist such adults in maximizing the value of their prior experiences in relation to educational goals and successfully obtaining appropriate credit. The reader is led step by step through the process of identifying learning outcomes, relating them to educational goals, documenting experience, measuring learning outcomes, and requesting credit or recognition. Descriptors: Adults; Case Studies; College Applicants; College Credits; College Students; Credentials; Educational Background; Educational Objectives; Evaluation Methods; Experiential Learning; Guides; Higher Education; Informal Assessment; Knowledge Level; Portfolios (Background Materials); Post-secondary Education; Prior Learning; Self Evaluation; Special Degree Programs; Student Evaluation; Work Experience. Identifiers: Performance Based Certification.
Government of Australia. Department of Employment, Education, and Training. (1993) Recognition of Prior Learning: A Practical Guide for Women. Canberra: Department of Employment, Education, and Training.
Green, Kathleen. (Summer 1996) "Nontraditional Education: Alternative Ways to Earn Your Credentials." Occupational Outlook Quarterly 40(2), 22-35.
See abstract under 1.5 (PLAR Policy/United States of America).
Haponski, William C., and others. (1983) Your College Degree: The External Degree Way. Oneida, NY: ETC Associates.
See abstract under 2.4 (Implementation of PLAR in Formal Education/Distance Learning).
Hecht, Miriam, and Lillian Traub. (1982) Dropping Back In: How to Complete Your College Education Quickly and Economically. First Edition. New York: E.P. Dutton.
207 pages. Document Type: book; non-classroom material. Target Audience: Practitioners. A handbook for the adult student returning to college is presented. Attention is directed to the pros and cons of reentry; how to choose a program; options for financing an education; admissions applications; maximizing pre-entry credits; colleges, credits, and degrees; coping with academic demands such as exam-taking; and achieving a balance between work, family, friends, and school. The importance of determining whether an institution's offerings are accredited and acceptable as transfer credits is noted, along with the meaning of regional accreditation, accreditation by professional groups, and state licensing requirements. Reentry students may obtain preentry college credits in three ways: transfer credits from other colleges, credit by examination, and credit for life experience. Receiving the maximum number of credits for prior learning can mean large savings of money and time. Independent study projects may be a good mode of learning, and some colleges allow all credit to be earned off-campus by independent study through external degree programs. Required courses, special services, and college costs are also considered, and sources of information on programs and funds are identified. A bibliography and lists of state licensing agencies and state higher education agencies are appended. Descriptors: Academic Aspiration; Accreditation (Institutions); Adult Students; College Admission; College Attendance; College Choice; College Credits; College Programs; College Students; Education Work Relationship; Financial Needs; Higher Education; Occupational Aspiration; Prior Learning; Reentry Students; Student Adjustment; Student Costs. Identifiers: Stopouts. Report No: ISBN-0-525-93228-3.
Hengesbach, Ted. (July 1979) College Credit for Prior Learning: A Student Handbook. Draft. South Bend: Indiana Univ.
27 pages. Document Type: instructional material. Target Audience: Practitioners; Students. A step-by-step guide for seeking college credit for prior learning is presented in this Indiana University (IU) student handbook. The External Degree Program in General Studies at Indiana University at South Bend awards college credit toward the Associate and/or Bachelors of General Studies degree for knowledge and understanding gained through various life experiences. The University requires that students submit for assessment a portfolio that organizes prior learning experiences into a manageable form. The portfolio includes: (1) title page; (2) table of contents; (3) introduction; (4) resume; (5) clustering of learning experiences and competency statements; (6) request for credit; and (7) appendix. Both general and course specific credits can be earned. General credits awarded are transferable to any other Indiana University External Degree Program in General Studies and the per credit fee is discussed. Other methods of earning credit for learning from life experiences that are possible at IU include the College Level Examination Program (CLEP) and Examinations given by the Independent Study Division of the School of Continuing Education. Descriptors: Advanced Placement; College Credits; Education Work Relationship; Equivalency Tests; Evaluation Methods; Experiential Learning; External Degree Programs; Higher Education; Institutional Characteristics; Learning Experience; Nontraditional Education; Nontraditional Students; Portfolios (Background Materials); Prior Learning. Identifiers: Indiana University South Bend.
Jennings, Leonie. (1993) Issues Primer. EEE708 Negotiated Study Program. Victoria: Deakin Univ.
88 pages. Document Type: collection; instructional material. Target Audience: Students. This issues primer is structured around a series of 20 contemporary concerns in the changing world of work and training in Australia in the early 1990s. It is part of the study materials for the one-semester distance education unit, Negotiated Study Program, in the Open Campus Program at Deakin University (Australia). Information on each issue is accompanied by an activity and list of references. The issues are as follows: the politics of workplace reform; education back on the agenda; relevant government reports in the 1980s; award restructuring; skill formation and ideology; the Training Guarantee Levy -- a tax or an investment?; cost of training -- public vs. private; commercialization of training -- those who pay the piper play the tune; relevant government reports in the 1990s; competency-based training; recognition of prior learning; management up-skilling; performance appraisal; changing work force patterns; technology, communication, and training; enterprise bargaining and flexible work practices; recession, redundancies, and unemployment; women and training; youth and employment; and jobs in the future. Descriptors: Adult Education; Competency Based Education; Costs; Emerging Occupations; Females; Foreign Countries; Futures (of Society); Industrial Education; Job Training; Labour Force Development; Prior Learning; Skill Development; Unemployment; Vocational Education; Womens Education; Youth Employment. Identifiers: Australia. ISBN: 0-7300-1670-6
Keiffer, Elisabeth. (June 17, 1986) "Become a College Grad Without Leaving Home." Woman's Day 96, 98-101.
Document Type: journal article; non-classroom material; directory. Target Audience: Students; Community. Colleges and universities have responded to the need of adults to possess academic credentials by designing programs flexible enough to fit any situation. Portfolio assessment, independent study, credit-by-exam, and credit for prior learning are among the ways people earn degrees. Some women's experiences and sources for study cited. Descriptors: Adult Students; Certification; College Credits; Educational Experience; Experiential Learning; Females; Higher Education; Nontraditional Education; Nontraditional Students; Portfolios (Background Materials); Prior Learning; Special Degree Programs. Identifiers: American Council on Education; Council for Adult and Experiential Learning; Regents College NY; Union for Experimenting Colleges and Universities.
Kimeldorf, Martin. (1994) Creating Portfolios: For Success in School, Work, and Life. Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit Publishing.
Lamdin, Lois. (1997) Earn College Credit for What You Know. 3rd ed. Chicago: Council for Adult and Experiential Learning.
231 pages. Abstract from book jacket: This book is written for those of you who have continued to learn and grow since leaving school, who have developed your job-related skills and competencies, who have read and listened and observed and tried new things because you enjoyed knowing more about your world. The purpose of this book is to help you think about what you have learned in your life, whether some of that learning may be appropriate for assessment for college credit, and exactly how to go about earning that credit. The third edition has added information on learning styles and self-directed learning, enlarged upon the section on career and academic decision-making, a consumer's guide to post-secondary education, and a state-by-state listing of colleges and universities with comprehensive assessment programs. The key section on portfolio-assisted assessment has been significantly updated, the emergence of new uses for PLA is noted, and website and email addresses are provided for learning resources. Included in the book are stories of people who have successfully returned to college and earned credit for learning gained outside of a classroom. The book will encourage you to define your own educational goals, show you how to set up a specific action plan to achieve these goals, and make you a smart consumer of education. ISBN: 07872-3573-3.
Lamdin, Lois. (1992) Earn College Credit for What You Know. 2nd ed. Chicago: Council for Adult and Experiential Learning.
256 pages. Abstract from book jacket: This book is written for those of you who have continued to learn and grow since leaving school, who have developed your job-related skills and competencies, who have read and listened and observed and tried new things because you enjoyed knowing more about your world. The purpose of this book is to help you think about what you have learned in your life, whether some of that learning may be appropriate for assessment for college credit, and exactly how to go about earning that credit. The second edition has added a new section on career and academic decision-making, a consumer's guide to post-secondary education, and a state-by-state listing of colleges and universities with comprehensive assessment programs. The important section on portfolio-assisted assessment has been significantly expanded. Included in the book are stories of people who have successfully returned to college and earned credit for learning gained outside of a classroom. The book will encourage you to define your own educational goals, show you how to set up a specific action plan to achieve these goals, and make you a smart consumer of education.
Lior, Karen and D’Arcy, Martin. (March 1999) Tacit Skills, Informal Knowledge and Reflective Practice. Toronto, ON: Advocates for Community-Based Training and Education for Women (ACTEW) and The New Approaches to Lifelong Learning (NALL) Network.
6 pages. Community sites provide a range of pictures of “adult learning” in this research report. By interviews and by work with a Skills and Knowledge Profile, we note patterns of gender, culture, employment status, and strength of social organization when identifying learning needs and recording learning experiences.
Loyalist College. Academic Resources. (June 1995) Portfolio-Assisted Prior Learning Assessment: Portfolio Development: A Learner's Guide. Course materials for the course, Portfolio-Assisted PLA Portfolio Development Course. Belleville, Ont.: Loyalist College.
Mann, Carolyn M. (1993) Credit for Lifelong Learning. 4th edition. Bloomington, IN: Tichenor.
136 pages. Document Type: non-classroom material. Target Audience: Students. This guide to developing a prior learning portfolio was prepared to assist students in the Credit for Lifelong Learning Program (CLLP) at Sinclair Community College (SCC) in Dayton, Ohio, through the process of identifying college-level prior learning, matching their learning to specific courses, and articulating and documenting their learning. The first sections of the guide introduce SCC's Experience Based Education Department and Academic Credit Assessment Information Center and their functions; and provide an overview of portfolio development, including a discussion of the contents of a portfolio and the objectives of SCC's Portfolio Development course. The next sections detail the five main components of a portfolio: (1) the Chronological Record, a year-by-year accounting of activities since high school; (2) the Life History Paper, which examines important life events; (3) the Goals Paper, which describes personal, career, and educational goals; (4) the Narrative of Competencies, which provides concise statements of experiences and resulting learning; and (5) documentation of the learning experience supporting each competency described. Examples of each component are provided. In addition, a worksheet for educational planning and a separate section on describing and documenting an internship experience are provided. The next section explains how to assemble the portfolio, including a sample cover letter. Next, information is provided on how the portfolio will be evaluated and grades posted, and mechanisms for challenging a grade or filing a grievance related to course or internship credit are explained. A concluding section summarizes the process. An overview of services provided by SCC's Academic Credit Assessment Information Center, descriptions of special SCC degree programs. Descriptors: College Credits; College Faculty; Community Colleges; Course Content; Educational Assessment; Evaluation Methods; Experiential Learning; Lifelong Learning; Portfolios (Background Materials); Prior Learning; Program Descriptions; Two Year Colleges; Two Year College Students. ISBN: 0-89917-530-9.
McKenzie, Robert H. (1992) Degree Planning and Prior Learning. 3rd edition. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt.
Morais, Anne, Lior, K. and D’Arcy, Martin. (1999) Revolution of Experiences: Evolution of the Skills and Knowledge Profile. Toronto, ON: Advocates for Community-Based Training and Education for Women (ACTEW) and The New Approaches to Lifelong Learning (NALL) Network.
9 pages. The SKP is not only a tool but a reflection of a positive trend in adult education. Adult learners enter the proverbial classroom to build on and share their own wealth of knowledge and skills. A user friendly SKP can legitimize and further one’s prior learning. Based on the feedback from learners, the SKP we developed is a generic tool that has a strong potential to fulfill the needs of various work, community and education institutions.
Morais, Anne and Lior, K. (1999) Honouring Their Stories: The Experience of One Interviewer. Toronto, ON: Advocates for Community-Based Training and Education for Women (ACTEW) and The New Approaches to Lifelong Learning (NALL) Network.
5 pages. The intent of the project was to uncover and document learning strategies used by adults in three different learning sites: an unionized factory; a community-based employment training program; and a literacy program. It was to focus on learners in the pre-employment and literacy programs in Toronto. The method of research was action based: The author was responsible for interviewing adult learners and facilitating sessions on filling out a Skills and Knowledge Profile.
National Council for Educational Awards.Your Life and Work Experience Can Help You to Gain Qualification. Dublin: National Council for Educational Awards.
4 pages. An introductory pamphlet to the NCEA's Prior Experiential Learning scheme.
Riedel, J.E. (June 1978) Student Handbook: Interdisciplinary Studies 800, Assessment of Experiential Learning. Fountain Valley, CA: Coastline Community College.
64 pages. Document Type: non-classroom material; project description. Target Audience: Practitioners. This handbook was designed for adults who did not complete an occupational or degree objective and who are considering returning to college and wish to request credit or advanced standing for learning acquired through non-college experiences. The handbook guides the student in the preparation of a portfolio which examines, identifies, describes, and evaluates learning experiences and aids in determining the place of these experiences within an educational plan. The handbook's first section discusses the personal, career, and educational benefits in preparing a portfolio. The second explains how to identify educational goals and provides guidelines for defining life goals, translating them into educational goals, and writing a degree program which recognizes prior learning. The third section clarifies the use of guides which list the competency requirements of a degree program against which the student can measure non-academic learning. The fourth section indicates how to write a description of non-academic learning experiences and their relevance to a college program. The fifth section reveals how student learning can be verified, measured, and evaluated, while the sixth explains formal requests for prior learning via a petition review committee. The seventh section outlines the parts of the formal portfolio. Four appendices deal with tools used in portfolio preparation. Descriptors: Adult Education; Adult Learning; Advanced Placement; College Credits; Community Colleges; Employment Experience; Equivalency Tests; Experiential Learning; Guides; Knowledge Level; Learning Experience; Measurement Instruments; Portfolios (Background Materials); Two Year Colleges.
Rolls, Dorothea M. (April 1987) "Documenting Experiential Learning: Preparation of a Portfolio for College Credit. Techniques." Lifelong Learning 10(6), 19-21.
Sansregret, Marthe. (1985) Recognition of Prior Learning. The Portfolio. Student's Guide. Quebec City: Quebec Department of Education.
Sheridan College. (1995) The Prior Learning Assessment Guide. Oakville, Ont.: Sheridan College.
Smith, Peter. (1986) Your Hidden Credentials. Chicago: Council for Adult and Experiential Learning.
The average adult worker now changes jobs six times before retiring, and he or she learns valuable skills at every one of these work situations. This book reveals the stages for identifying and appreciating personal learning, and using it as a springboard toward greater work satisfaction and knowledge throughout life. ISBN: 07872-33462.
Thomas A. Edison State College. (1990) Portfolio Assessment Handbook. 1990-91. Trenton, NJ: Thomas A. Edison State College.
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